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  • Abrasive

    Product that does the cutting in the sandblast process (the sand)
  • Apex

    The highest point of a monument where the four sides are tapered together
  • Band

    Any continuous strip or section on a monument which can be raised, flat, recessed or carved
  • Base

    The lower part or parts of a multi-sectioned monument
  • Bas-Relief

    Any sculpturing that projects minimally from the background
  • Bed

    The flat, top portion of any monument base which is cut to fit the bottom (joint) for the die, or main part of the monument
  • Bevel or Hickey Marker

    A rectangular, angled or sloped-top marker
  • Blued

    A term that describes the deepened color given to a monument by an abrasive used in sandblasting
  • Bottom Jointed

    The bottom of the die, or main part of the monument, leveled and squared for final mounting on the base
  • Bruise

    Any marring of the surface of a stone caused by a blow; also called a stun
  • Buffing

    Applying the final touch to the stone’s polished surface
  • Cap

    Any roof like outcropping, usually supported by columns
  • Capital

    The top part of any pilaster or column
  • Carving

    The process of shaping stone to the desired effect; includes sandblast, sculptural shape, line and hand carving
  • Chamfer

    A beveled of tapered edge made by cutting away of square edge on a monument
  • Check

    A cut or recess in the stone, normally on the top or ends; a rabbet-shaped cutting
  • Chipped

    Small chips mar the edge of the stone
  • Columbarium

    A vault with niches for urns containing ashes of the dead
  • Columnar

    An orderly arrangement of single of double columns on a monument
  • Column

    Any pillar consisting of a base, cylindrical or squared shaft and a capital or crown.
  • Concave

    A curve matching the inner surface of a sphere
  • Convex

    The opposite of Concave, any cut matching the outer surface of a sphere
  • Coping

    Any low stone arrangement outlining the limits of a burial lot, also called a curbing
  • Cubical Content

    Total number of cubic feet and inches in a piece of stone, cut or uncut
  • Curbing

    The placing of a stone curb or low enclosure around a cemetery burial lot
  • Design

    A sketch or picture of an artist’s concept of a specially designed monument
  • Die

    The primary body portion of any monument, large or small; also called “Tablet”
  • Dowel

    A pin designed to hold two joints of stone together
  • Drainage Holes

    Openings drilled in any section of a monument of vase where it is necessary to carry off water
  • Drop

    The amount of space between the highest and lowest of the bevel or other parts of a monument
  • Epitaph

    Any inscription or text on a monument in memory of the person or persons interred there
  • Epoxy

    A thermosetting resin used as a strong adhesive to permanently attach two items together
  • Etching

    The drawing of scenes or portraits on memorials with a laser or diamond etcher
  • Face

    The front of any monument of the forward portion of a slant-face marker
  • Flat Carving

    Any line carving on the surface of stone; also called “skin carving”
  • Frost

    To remove the polish and leave a matte finish; also called “dust” or “skin:
  • Full Size Detail

    A full size sketch of a monument of part of a monument, showing it exactly as it is to appear when finished
  • Gable Top

    The roof-like top of any monument that is some times referred to as a “two-way top” or a “rooftop”
  • Gothic Top

    The top of a monument that rounds gracefully to a peak on the exact center line
  • Gold Leaf

    A thin layer of gold that is applied to the memorial usually to enhance the lettering or to accent a carving
  • Grass Marker

    A small flat piece of stone set with or approximately with the level of the ground; also call a “flush marker”
  • High Relief

    The opposite of Bas-Relief. In high relief, the projecting figures of carvings extend outward at least half as much as their circumference
  • Joint

    Any surface where one piece of stone has been dressed and cut to fit another; usually designates the bottom of the main part of the monument
  • Ledger

    A memorial stone laid prone and covering all or most of the grave
  • Lithochrome

    A liquid that can be sprayed onto panels or carvings or into letters to enhance of change the natural contrast or color
  • Margin

    The extremely outer portion of any stone piece, which is given a contrasting finish for effect; can be sawn, steeled, hammered, or polished
  • Marker

    A headstone, that lies flat or flush in the ground
  • Mausoleum

    A building in which remains are buried or entombed
  • Memorial

    A structure that serves as a reminder of a specific event of person
  • Nosings

    Used in two ways: on monuments, it refers to any cut or additional stone projecting out beyond the main surface line. On slant markers, it can refer to either top or front
  • Obelisk

    Any tall, four sided spire that tapers to a pyramidal point
  • Ogee

    A double curve in the shape of an elongated “S”
  • Outline, Frosted

    Letters formed by lines sandblasted on a finished surface. The letters are frosted and outlined with a recessed line around the letter
  • Oval Top

    Any monument or marker with the top arched as a segment of a circle
  • Panel

    Any monument or marker with the top arched as a segment of a circle
  • Pedestal

    A base for any urn, statue, etc.
  • Pillar

    A column to support a structure
  • Pitching (rock-pitching)

    The cutting or chipping away of rough stone to a predetermined and marked line
  • Plinth

    A stone slab or block, usually square or rectangular, upon which a pedestal, column, die, or statue is placed
  • Polished

    Term used to describe the high gloss finish on a monument
  • Raised Band

    A running, raises strip on a monument that often contains names and dates
  • Raised Letters

    A style of lettering that accomplished by removing the area around the letter and making it raised from the surface
  • Relief

    The projection of carvings from the flat surface of a monument
  • Rounds

    Any stone edge rounded like the outside of a circle
  • Rubbing

    The process of tracing the lettering and design on the face of a monument by rubbing crayon over paper
  • Sandblast

    A machine that mixes abrasive and air pressure in a controlled manner; used to carve and letter memorials
  • Sculpture

    Shaping and carving stone to any predetermined form
  • Serpentine

    Any surface or molding cut to resemble the S-like motion of a snake
  • Setting Compound

    Used to form a seal between the die and base or other joints that must be sealed to keep water out; not an adhesive
  • Shell Rock

    Rock pitching by removing large pieces of stone and leaving a shell-like appearance
  • Skin Carving

    Any shallow carving on the skin or surface of a monument that is executed by removing the polish; has no depth
  • Slant

    A marker with an extreme slant face with a nosing either at the top, bottom, or both
  • Steeled

    The surface of any stone that is gound with steel shot, resulting in a smooth unpolished matte finish; also called “dusting”
  • Stencil

    A sheet of rubber material affixed to the stone onto which the design has been transferred and then cut out to expose portions of the stone for sandblasting
  • Stock

    The inventory of monuments held by a memorialist
  • Taper

    The gradual decrease in thickness or width of a monument
  • Turned Work

    Any circular-shaped memorial such as a vase
  • V-Sunk Letters

    A style of lettering that uses a carver’s chisel to create the letter by cutting a “V” shape into the stone
  • Wash Or Drop Wash

    A beveled surface making up the exposed portion of the upper edge of a monument base designed to assure water run-off
  • Wings

    Stones extending outward from the main body of a monument